The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, in the center of Piazza dei Miracoli, is the medieval cathedral of Pisa as well as the Primary Church. The church was erected in an area outside the archipelago, symbolizing the power of Pisa. In 1092, the church, from a simple cathedral, goes to primacy, having been awarded the title of primate to Archbishop Daiberto by Pope Urban II, today's only formal honor. The cathedral was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II, belonging to the Pisan branch of Gaetani, accounts of Terriccio and Oriseo. Subsequent interventions took place during the nineteenth century and involved both interior and exterior decorations, and in many cases, especially for facade sculptures, they were replaced by copies. The building originally was a Greek cross at the crossroads of a large dome, today it is a Latin cross with five aisles with apse and three naves transsexuals, suggesting a spatial effect similar to that of the great mosques Islamic, thanks to the use of six-raised arches, the alternation of white and black marble bands and the unusual elliptical dome, of Moorish inspiration. The rich decoration includes multicolored marbles, mosaics and numerous bronze items from the war booty, including the Grifo used as the roof east, taken in Palermo in 1061. The doors of the massive bronze facade were made by several Florentine artists in the XVII century. Contrary to what you might think, from the ancient times, the faithful entered the Duomo through the door of San Ranieri, placed on the back in the transept of the same name, opposite the bell tower. This is because the nobles of the city went to the cathedral, coming from Via Santa Maria, who leads to that transept. This gate was fused around 1180 by Bonanno Pisano, and the only door escaped from the 1595 fire that heavily damaged the church. The door of San Ranieri is decorated with 24 molds depicting stories of the New Testament. This door is one of the first products produced in Italy in the Middle Ages, after importing numerous examples from Constantinople, and there is a feeling of Western sensitivity, which stems from the Byzantine tradition. Above the doors there are four open gallery galleries, with, on top, the Madonna with Child and, in the corners, the four evangelists. The Buscheto tomb is to the left of the north door of the façade. The interior, subdivided into 5 aisles and transept and 3 naves abside, is covered with white and black marble with monolithic gray marble columns and corinthian capitals. It has a seventeenth-century golden coffered ceiling in gold and painted wood of Florentine Domenico and Bartholomew Atticciati; gild the Medici Coat of Arms. Presumably the ancient ceiling had a structure with exposed wooden trusses. The great absidal mosaic of Christ in the throne between the Virgin and St. John is made famous by the face of St. John of Cimabue in 1302 and survived miraculously in the fire of 1595. That very Saint John the Evangelist was the last work carried out by Cimabue before of death and the only one of which there is a certified record. It evokes the mosaics of the Byzantine and Norman churches, such as Cefalù and Monreale, in Sicily. The mosaic, largely made by Francesco da Pisa, was finished by Vincino da Pistoia with the representation of the Madonna on the left (1320). The church also houses the relics of Saint Ranieri, the patron saint of Pisa, and the fragmentary tomb of Arrigo VII of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor, who died at Buonconvento while in vain in Florence. The tomb, also this dismantled and reconstructed, is now placed in the right transept, originally placed in the center of the apse, as a sign of the Ghibelline faith of the city. Subsequently, he moved several times to political matters, and he was also divided into several parts.