The New Citadel, today called Giardino di Scotto, is an ancient fortress of Pisa. Calling "new" to distinguish it from the oldest Citadel and facing the sea, it is at the far end of the Pisanian city wall, in Lungarno Fibonacci, on the southern shore of the Arno River, between the Victory Bridge and the Fortress Bridge. It was built starting in 1440 during the first Florentine domination. Following the Pisan revolt and the clashes that preceded the second conquest of the city, the fortress was damaged and later restructured by the architect Giuliano da Sangallo. In this new refurbishment, new weaponry using gunpowder was taken into account. This is one of the first examples in Italy. At the center of the fortifications of the New Citadel, there is today a large garden built by the architect Giovanni Caluri at the beginning of the 19th century for the Livorno shipowner Domenico Scotto. After buying in 1798 the fortress, which Grand Duke Leopold I of Tuscany had put up for sale, the Scotto family initiated the work for the construction of a palace with a large green space. Tradition wants the gigantic platano, which stands in the middle of the garden, to be planted on a theatrical performance by Carlo Goldoni; in fact when the Garden was purchased, the Goldoni was already dead. In the thirties of the last century, the area becomes a public public garden and is used for exhibitions, theater performances, concerts and outdoor cinemas during the summer, a role it has maintained to this day. At the end of the eleventh century the church of Sant'Andrea and San Vincenzo was built, which will become the main hub for the creation of a very rich parish and district. This church and the annexed neighborhood were built after a phase of abandonment in the Middle Ages as evidenced by the fact that the church was implanted directly on the Roman and late Roman structures. The archaeological surveys of 2003-2005 have brought to light the northwestern part of the church. The east-west oriented building featured a single room with three entrances and a double sloping roof; the floor was very simple, consisted of river cobblestones, and the interior walls were plastered and perhaps painted, as evidenced by some traces of color found at the base of the walls. Following the flood of the Arno in 1333, the external tread plan had to be raised, witnessed by a sandstone threshold and two steps added to the original plant. From the excavation it was also possible to confirm that the so-called St. Anthony's Tower, inserted in the southern walls of the future citadel, was originally the bell tower of the church of Sant'Andrea. On the northern side of the ecclesiastical building there was a small cemetery with nine burials in a terracce pit alternating with trees, which seem to confirm the presence of a "pomario cemetery" typical of monastic complexes where the burials were in a real garden and the trees represented symbolic rebirth, in the Christian perspective of a life after death. The construction of the church led to the formation in this area of a very prosperous district that by the passing of time became the richest area of Pisa. Between XII and XIII century there was a flourishing construction activity that allowed the construction of various buildings including a hospital, a monastery, houses for about 90 families and a number of workshops mainly of pots, as evidenced by the use since the early twentieth century term Baractularia to refer to the church of Sant'Andrea and to the whole area. The word Baractularii refers to the Pisan ceramists who produced specialty types of pots "jars", which then was extended to the production of all other types of pottery.