The Louvre Museum (in French, the Musée du Louvre in Paris, is one of the most famous museums in the world.) The museum was named after the palace that hosts it. Originally it was a fortress built at the end of the 12th century during the reign of In the second half of the 14th century, it was the actual seat of the French monarchy until 1682, when Louis XIV moved to the The Palace of Versailles, and remained its formal seat until the end of the Ancien Régime in 1789. It was the revolutionary government to fully implement the projects already underway to transform into the museum, inaugurating it as such in 1793, even though the palace continued to hosted government agencies until the nineties. The central role of France in the history of the nineteenth century greatly contributed to the rise of the museum collection, which some of the world's most famous works of art and artifacts of great historic value, such as the vultures stem and Hammurabi. There are exhibitions of the Gioconda and the Virgin of the Rocks of Leonardo da Vinci, the Wedding of Cana (Veronese), two Prison of Michelangelo Buonarroti, Love and Psyche by Antonio Canova, The Oath of Jacques-Louis David's Jury, The Medusa raft by Théodore Géricault, Liberty guiding the people of Eugène Delacroix, Venus of Milo and the Nike of Samotracia, the Code of Hammurabi. The equestrian statue of Louis XIV represents the point of origin of the so-called Ax historique, even though the palace is not aligned with the axis itself. The current Louvre Palace is the result of a series of successive constructions built over the last 800 years. The true origin of the term louvre is debated. Other French locations carry the same name. The best known is derived from Latin lupara, that is, a place inhabited by wolves. Another hypothesis is that of Sauval suggesting that the name derives from the ancient Anglo-Saxon leouar term meaning castle or fortress. Edwards, on the other hand, claims that the name derives from the term rouvre, meaning oak, and refers to the fact that the building was originally built in a forest. In any case, a fortress structure was built between 1190 and 1202 under the reign of Philip II in order to defend Paris from the Norman incursions. It is not certain that this was the first building erected at that point, although some sources of time refer to the first Louvre as in the New Tower, indicating that there was an Old Tower before. The only remaining part of that building is the foundation of the south-eastern corner of the palace. Subsequently, the structure was expanded, mainly by Carlo V, who in 1358 built a defensive wall around the fortress and transformed the Louvre into a royal residence. Louis IX and Francis first, respectively, made an underground jail and a side building respectively. Francis also rebuilt the Louvre according to the design of architect Pierre Lescot. After the death of Francis in 1547, his successor Henry II kept the architect's plan and completed the western and southern wings by decorating them with the bas-reliefs of Jean Goujon. In 1594 King Henry IV united the Louvre Palace with the Tuileries Palace, which had been built by Caterina de 'Medici. This great project required the construction of the Grande Galerie, which then joined Pavillon de Flore at the southern end of the complex with the Pavillon de Marsan, which is located to the north. According to historians of the time, the building was one of the longest in the world.