Phoenix Park, is a large park in the center of Dublin. Rich in meadows and tree-lined avenues, it is bordered by a 16-kilometer perimeter wall. The park also houses a colony of fallow deer. Contrary to what it seems, the name Phoenix has nothing to do with the legendary bird of the phoenix, but it is the simple anglicization of Gaelic. It is one of the largest enclosed parks in Europe, larger than both Central Park in New York and Hyde Park in London. After the Norman conquest of Dublin and its surroundings in the twelfth century, Hugh Tyrell, the first Baron of Castleknock, assured that an extensive portion of uncultivated territory, which included today's Phoenix Park, would be ceded to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem . They settled in an abbey in the village of Kilmainham, in the place now occupied by the Royal Hospital. The knights lost all rights to their lands when Henry VIII confiscated all monastic properties in 1537, and 80 years later the lands became the property of representatives of the English Crown in Ireland. At the restoration of Charles II, his viceroy in Dublin, Lord Ormonde established a Royal Hunting Park containing pheasants and fallow deer, whence the need to enclose the area with a wall. The hunting lodge was closed, leaving it open to the public, by Lord Chesterfield in 1747. The park has been repeatedly mentioned in two novels by the dublinese James Joyce: Finnegans Wake and Ulisse. One of the park's main attractions, especially for children, is the Dublin Zoo. It was founded in 1830 and opened to the public on 1 September 1831, and is the third oldest zoo in the world. Visitors can see more than 700 animal species from around the world, including a collection of tropical birds. A Papal Cross was erected following the visit of Pope John Paul II. More than a million people participated in the mass in the park, almost a third of the Irish population. The Wellington Monument is a 62 meter high obelisk, in memory of Sir Arthur Wellesley, I Duke of Wellington. This obelisk could be higher but due to lack of funds it was decided to reach the current height. At the base there are 4 metal plates derived from the fusion of some cannons used during the Battle of Waterloo. Deerfield Residence is a building once used as the home of the Chief Secretary for Ireland, the second office of the Kingdom of Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant. Today it is the official residence of the US ambassador to Ireland. It is a monument that depicts a Corinthian column on the top of which a phoenix emerges from its own ashes. It was erected in 1747 by Lord Chesterfield. The oldest building in the park is Ashtown Castle, a medieval guard complex, originally from the seventeenth century. It is located next to the Visitors Center, where the public can enjoy 5,500 years of recovery and historical study of the park through the ages. The headquarters of the Irish State Police are located in the park. In the same place there is also a real sports facility, with football fields Gaelic, football, cricket and polo. the park houses, the residence of the President of the Republic of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin).