The archaeological excavations of Pompeii have restored the remains of the ancient city of Pompeii, at the hill of Civita, at the gates of modern Pompeii, buried beneath a coltrum of ashes and lapilli during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius of 79, together with Ercolano, Stabia and Oplonti. The finds following the excavations, begun by the will of Charles III of Bourbon, are one of the best testimonies of Roman life and the best preserved city of that time; Most of the finds recovered (in addition to simple everyday furnishings including frescoes, mosaics and statues) are now kept at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples and in small quantities in the currently closed Antiquarial Museum of Pompeii: the vast amount of finds has been useful in understanding habits, customs, eating habits and the art of life over two millennia ago. The Pompei site in 2016 has exceeded the three million visitors, accurately 3,209,089, resulting in the third most visited state museum site in Italy after the Pantheon and the archaeological circuit of the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Palatine. In 1997, in order to preserve its integrity, the ruins, managed by the Pompeii Superintendence, together with those of Herculaneum and Oplonti, became part of the UNESCO World Heritage List. Pompei was founded by Osci, with a village in fixed form, around the 8th century BC, on a plateau formed by a lava flow, not far from the river Sarno, though several testimonies attribute the first human settlements already from the 9th century BC: during the oscus period, the village, an important road node, with roads to Cuma, Nola and Stabiae, was walled by walls and reached an extension of 63 hectares. Pompeii was affected by the influences before the Greeks, thanks to the conquest of Cuma in the period between 525 and 474 BC, and then the Etruscans, under which the temple of Apollo was built; was conquered by the Sannites, who came from the mountains of Irpinia to the dependencies of Nocera. It was precisely beneath these that Pompeii became a rich commercial city, with a small flourishing harbor and surrounded by mighty walls, built around 300 BC. Conquered by the Romans in the third century BC, he continued his development of a commercial city, exporting throughout the Mediterranean oil and wine, which was mainly produced in the period of the 2nd century BC: in recent years he also witnessed a strong urban development, with the construction of the forum, Jupiter, Isis and Basilica, as well as numerous residential houses and villas. Under the Roman rule, it became the first municipium, enjoying partial independence, thanks to the support provided during the Second Punic War and then to the colony, under the name of Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum, following the conquest by Silla in the 89th BC. , during social wars. In the following years, the area was dry and bare, and was not subject to restocking, and despite some researches carried out in the first century, it was no longer found, remaining buried for nearly 1700 years. The houses were structured mainly in three types, depending on the class social and wealth of the owner: the domus belonged to the rich and were very large dwellings that usually lay around an atrium; they also had a living area, such as kitchens and bedrooms and a representative area, such as the tableland, triclinium, and a peristyle with the center of the garden, often adorned with fountains and not often a spa district. Smaller houses, however, were property of the middle class and were mostly composed of a central courtyard discovered around which cubicles opened and a small garden used for gardening. Finally, the so-called pergola, small houses belonging to the merchants.