Tourist Attraction in Ercolano: Scavi Archeologici di Ercolano
The archaeological excavations of Herculaneum have restored the remains of the ancient city of Herculaneum, buried under a bush of ashes, lapilli and mud during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius of 79, together with Pompeii, Stabiae and Oplonti. Founded casually following excavations for the construction of a well in 1709, archaeological investigations in Herculaneum began in 1738 to last until 1765; resumed in 1823, interrupted again in 1875, to a systematic excavation promoted by Amedeo Maiuri since 1927: most of the finds found are hosted at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, while in 2008 the birth of the virtual archaeological museum shows the city before the eruption of Vesuvius. The site of Herculaneum, managed by the Superintendence, along with the ruins of Pompeii and Oplonti, has become part of the UNESCO World Heritage List. Herculaneum, according to the legend dictated by the Dionysons of Alicarnasso, was founded by Hercules in 1243 BC. It was probably founded either by Osci in the ADODENT century BC, as written by Strabone, or by the Etruscans between X and l 'VIII century BC. It was conquered by the Greeks in 479 BC. and then passed under the influence of the Sannites, before being conquered by the Romans in the 89th post Christian, following the social war, becoming a town hall. The city then became a residential place for the Roman aristocracy and lived its period of greatest splendor with the tribe Marco Nonio Balbo, who embellished and built new buildings. Of the ancient Herculaneum, which followed the pattern proposed by Hippodamo da Mileto, only four of the total twenty hectares originally extending to it were recaptured in the township: it was surrounded by walls, defined by the historian Lucio Cornelio Sisenna "small" with a thickness varying from two to three meters and constructed in dry stone with large pebbles, dating back to the 2nd century BC, while along the coast line they were in a cross-linked work; as in Pompeii, after the social wars the walls lost their defensive function and were embedded in buildings built in their proximity: one for example is visible in the Hotel House near the entrance to the archaeological park. The urban system was of the orthogonal type, classic of ancient Greece, with rectangular crossings and with the decumans parallel to the coast, to which the hinges perpendicularly crossed; the latter, near the walls along the beach, each had an arched door ramp, allowing direct access to the sea. In total, the city had three decumans, two of which were excavated and five the third, fourth, and fifth are visible; during the Augustan era, the streets were paved with lava polygon slabs, except for the stretch in front of the Gymnasium, along V-tile, white limestone: all the streets of the excavated area, flanked by sidewalks, are less well-consumed by wheel passage of wagons. For water supply, the city was directly connected to the Serino aqueduct, built in the Augustan age, and that through a series of lead pipes under the streets, controlled by valves and eliminated with Bourbon excavations, watered homes; Previously, wells were used, which provided water at depths ranging between eight and ten meters. The Forum, the temples, numerous houses and necropolises are still buried in Herculaneum. The currently visible part has been divided into several insulae, of which only four, III, IV, V and VI are completely explored.