The Palazzo dei Capitani del Popolo is one of the most famous historic buildings in Ascoli Piceno. With its medieval vaulted tower, it stands alongside the historic Caffè Meletti, in the heart of the city center, overlooking the "good living room" of Piazza del Popolo. Fresco of 1490, placed on the inner wall of the palace's right loggia, attributed to Pietro Alemanno. The painting portrays St. James of the Brand and the symbols that belong to his iconographic identification. The Franciscan saint holds the Trigram of Christ in his left hand and in his right hand a book, probably the Holy Bible, with a shield holding the Blood of Christ. The events of this imposing palace, a symbol of political power, encompass most of the major phases of administrative, public and social life throughout the centuries. It was erected between the middle of the 13th and the 14th centuries when Ascoli reached its maximum commercial expansion and the City Hall became inadequate for the new requirements that had formed itself. At the end of the 13th century it was the headquarters of the Captain of the People, an institutional figure of the local administrations of the medieval era, who served as chief of the militias and exercised legislative power. Later, he also housed the Podestas who had executive, judicial and police powers. In some documents it is defined as "Palactium Populi" and identified as the seat of the deputies of craftsmen. When Ascoli became a free commune its popular representation became greater and the palace was identified by the name of "Palactium Communis et Populi" or "Communis Antianorum". In 1482, the Council of the Elders abandoned the seat of the Arengo Palace and started renovating and enlarging the building. This new construction phase, however, underwent a slowdown for lack of funds between 1484 and 1514, when Ascoli found himself committed to fighting the war against the city of Fermo. In the 16th century, between 1518 and 1520, the palace was formed in its present form, at the time of the popes Giulio II and Leone X, who donated 1100 ducats for the realization of the rear prospect. On Christmas of 1535, some of the rebels belonging to the noble Ascolane families, Guiderocchi, Malaspina and Parisani were assassinated inside the building making it a scenario of tragic events. The then Pontifical Commissar Giovan Battista Quieti set fire to the building to end the uprising. The palace burned for two long days. The damage was incalculable and the Elders deliberated the new, necessary restoration efforts. This event followed a new refurbishment in 1536. In 1564 it became the seat of the Pontifical Governors and the Elders, after a secular stay, were forced to abandon it. The Legates of Rome stayed there until 1860. In 1866, by the July 7th Law, the monumental complex became the property of the state. Since then the palace has only experienced passages, in 1875 it passed from the state to the Province and from it in 1902 to the commune. During the twenty-year-old Mussolinius was the seat of the Fascist National Party and was called "Casa del Littorio", later it was the seat of the Liberation Command. In 1968, the reconciliation operations carried out by the Superintendence for the Environmental and Architectural Heritage of the Marches were carried out. Between 1980 and 1987, the project for the recovery of the whole complex was completed. At present, the palace is used as the headquarters of the Culture and, in the Hall of Reason, the meetings of the Municipal Council are held. Other building environments are intended to host temporary exhibitions.