The Loggia della Signoria is a historic monument of Florence. It is also called Loggia dei Lanzi not so much because here it seems that the Lanzichenecchi were encamped in 1527 to move to Rome, but because Grand Duke Cosimo I's Guard Corps, which was under the Loggia, was partly made up of lanzichenecchi. The building dates back to the period between 1376 and 1382; the loggia served to host the numerous popular public assemblies and official ceremonies of the Florentine Republic in the presence of the people, such as those of the settlement of the nobles. Though it is a Gothic building, the presence of arches to the whole of the sixth represents a real anticipation of the Renaissance style that, most likely, inspired Filippo Brunelleschi. On the facade are the four forms with allegorical figures of cardinal virtues executed by Agnolo Gaddi (1383-1386). In this sense, the Perseus and Medusa of Benvenuto Cellini, specifically commissioned by Cosimo, meant to cut the republican experiences of the city, symbolized by Medusa, from whose body the snakes are the proverbial disagreements that have always undermined a true democratic life. Almost unique in the world's panorama, in the three arches of the lodge are housed sculptures of exceptional quality dating back to the classical age and the period of Mannerism, true museum masterpieces, all original, and freely available day and night free of charge. On the sides of the entrance staircase they watch two marble lions, one of Roman times, and the other made in Flaminio Vacca in 1600; the lions symbolize the guard and the protection of the places of adventures, according to an iconographic tradition dating back to even mesopotamical civilizations. is the well-known Perseus of Benvenuto Cellini, a large bronze statue of 3.20 meters high including the mythological bas-relief basalt pedestal. The well-proportioned body and Perseo's plastic position, resting on one leg while lifting the head with a decapitated Medusa head with his left arm. It was housed in the loggia in 1554. Even more complex is the Rat of the Sabine, a marble masterpiece of Giambologna (1583). In addition to the original, in the Accademia Museum is the plaster-sized model made by Giambologna himself as a preparation for the execution of the marble statue. Along with Giambologna is the Hercules and the centaur Nesso, the sensational movement effect expressed by the live body of the centaur subdued by the Greek hero (1599). Roman sculptures are Patroclo and Menelao, a gift from Pius V to Cosimo I, and the six female figures near the bottom wall. It is believed that they may come from the Trajan Forum in Rome, however, were found in the middle of the sixteenth century and, after long decorating Villa Medici, arrived in Florence in 1789. Of the mulies, the first two were not identified as characters, while the third on the left represents Thusnelda, a barbarian prisoner of Arminio's wife. The last three are Roman matrons of imperial rank, finely carved and with more precious marble. Instead, it is a nineteenth-century work by Polissena's Rat of the Sculptor Pio Fedi (1865), which resembles the style of the nearby Menelao. In 1850 on the back wall of the loggia the Marquis Cosimo Ridolfi, then Minister of Education, had arranged a thermometer and barometer represented by two marble disks with the appropriate indications, to divulge the scientific measurement of the people. The realization of the two instruments was entrusted to the physicist Father Filippo Cecchi and to the director of the Specola Astronomica Father Giovanni Antonelli. Judged later, not in line with the artistic value of the loggia, the instruments were removed and finally placed along the stairs of the Galileo Museum.