Tourist Attraction in Bolzano: Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta
The foundations of the oldest church date back to the 4th century AD. and probably was consecrated to San Vigilio, as many early Christian churches in the area were consecrated to him. The building had a rectangular plan, it was 38 meters long and 14 meters wide and was divided into three environments thanks to dividing walls. The side walls of the church were equipped with 8 buttresses. The Basilica was built according to the Eastern style typology, spread in the Noricum area, the Roman province corresponding to approximately to present Austria, and in the area of Aquileia, to which the basilica in question referred. The basilica had an atrium in the west, where it was perhaps an acqasantiera, and had a presbytery bank. It was a circular building in the altar area where the priests could sit. Near the basilica stood a small burial ground, witnessed by the stone of "Secundus Regontius", dating back to the 3rd century AD. This is the first inhabitant of Bolzano whose name is known to him. Later, in the VI-VII century, the church was restored, as evidenced by the filling of the walls left empty by the buttresses. Digging beneath the pavement, a slightly longer wall was discovered, dating back to the Carolingian age. Of this time there were not only the wall, but also five fragments of parietal painting depicting faces faced with prayer. This finding makes us realize that after the Barbaric invasions the new Bolzanine population, which had partly settled on Virgolo / Virgl, home to a Bajawalk Count already in 679 (as witnessed by Paul Deacon), settled permanently in the basin thus constituting a small pre-urban village around the bridge over the Isarco / Eisack River. The foundations of a medieval church were found, with a very particular plant: in fact, this church had only a row of columns, so it possessed two asymmetrical naves. This building had a mighty tower with thick walls, perhaps to protect it from the frequent and violent floods of the Isarco. The church was in Romanesque style and the façade is still visible. In fact, if it is noted, it is noted that on the sides of the Gothic rosette there are two full-arch windows, typical of the Romanesque style. In the chapel of the apse of the present church, there is a statue of the Madonna that nurses a baby Jesus dating back to the 12th century: according to the legend, the medieval church stood on the remains of the early Christian basilica of the sixth century: the Gothic structure was completed in 1519 with the erection of the 65-meter late Gothic bell tower by the architect Burkhard Engelberg of Augusta and Hans von Lutz. The building is a church in a room divided into three aisles with square pillars, with choir surrounded by deambulatory and apse chapel. It has cruise times in the part of the piedicroce and stars in the absidale. At the same time, the late-night sandpit pulpit was carved by swaddé Hans von Schussenried, partially destroyed in 1943 by allied bombardments, and rebuilt in 1949. Lastly, it must be remembered that the church since 1363 has acquired memorial functions for the Habsburgs as documented in its "Liturgical Anniversary".