Tourist Attraction in Tallinn: Aleksander Nevski katedraal
The Toompea cathedral, or Toompea cathedral, is the Lutheran cathedral, located on Toompea Hill (where Toomkirik), in Tallinn. It is consecrated to St. Mary the Virgin. Founded in the 13th century by the Danes, it is Tallinn's oldest church and the main one in Estonia, the only building in Toompea spared by a devastating fire in the 17th century. Born as a Catholic cathedral, he became Lutheran in 1561 and since then belongs to the Estonian Lutheran Evangelical Church in Tallinn. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Tallinn, the spiritual leader of the Lutheran Estonian Evangelical Church, and is the main church of that Synod. Of the first church, built in wood, there were news already around 1219 when the Danes invaded Tallinn; in 1229, with the arrival of Dominican monks, stone reconstruction began. The monks were subsequently killed in a struggle between the Pascal Knights and the Vassals linked to the pope in 1233, and the church was defeated. In the same year a letter was sent to Rome asking for permission to reconsecrate the church; this letter is the first written test of the existence of the cathedral. The Dominicans managed to erect the supporting walls, but not to finish the construction, which was completed in 1240, with only one nave and a rectangular chorus. In 1240 it was chosen as the cathedral of the diocese of Reval and consecrated to the Virgin Mary. At the beginning of the 14th century a profound restoration of the church began, enlarged and enlarged, beginning with the choir and then with the addition of a new sacristy. The expansion of the aisles, which ranged from one to three, began in 1330; the work lasted for almost a century. The new and longitudinal section of the church, 29 meters long, was built second with the structure of a basilica and completed in 1430. The aisle, with rectangular columns, was also completed in the second half of the 14th century. The exterior dates back to the 15th century. Most of today's furnishings date back to the period between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Between 1778 and 1779 a new baroque spire was built in the western part of the aisle. Inside the cathedral there are many tombs of various types, from the 13th to the 18th century, a carved stone sarcophagus of the seventeenth century, the altar with the choir and the presbytery, numerous coats of arms of the old German-Baltic families from the XVII century century to the 20th century. Two of the four bells are from the 17th century, the other two are from the 18th century, and the organ of the church dates back to 1914. Among the illustrious figures buried in the church are: Enrico Matteo von Thurn-Valsassina, noble Czech with Italian origins Pontus De la Gardie, military nobleman Samuel Greig, Scottish admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy Adam Johann von Krusenstern, navigator Fabian von Fersen, noble, politician, Swedish military.