The Jewish Museum of Berlin is the largest Jewish museum in Europe. In two buildings, one of which is an extension specially designed by architect Daniel Libeskind, a permanent collection and various temporary exhibits tell about two millennia of Jewish history in Germany. Two millennia of Jewish history in Germany presents Germany from the point of view of the Jewish minority. The collection begins with rooms dedicated to medieval settlements along the Rhine, especially those of Spira, Worms and Mainz. Following is a space devoted to the intellectual and personal heritage of philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786); these two figures accompany portraits of Jews of every social condition. Temporary exhibitions have a wide range of themes, ages and genres. Originally the museum was housed in a building located in Oranienburger Straße, but was closed in 1938 by the Nazi regime. The idea of reopening the museum began to circulate in 1971. In 1975 a committee was set up to promote this project, whose first embryo was after an exhibition on Jewish history held in Berlin in 1978. In 1999, the museum was finally recognized its autonomy as an institution and also had its own permanent seat. The museum's palace was designed by Daniel Libeskind and completed in 1999, while the official inauguration took place in 2001. The museum's building differs greatly from the usual museum type: it does not meet any criterion functionality, as it mixes architecture and sculpture. The museum has no entrance from the street but is accessed from the adjacent Berlin-Museum. A staircase and an underground path connect the two buildings, which symbolize how Jewish and German history are connected and connected. The staircase leads to a subway, consisting of three corridors, called axes, symbolizing the different destinies of the Jewish people: the axis of the Holocaust leads to a tower that was left empty, called the Holocaust Tower; the axis of Exile leads to an outer square garden called the Garden of Exile, enclosed in 49 columns; the axis of continuity, connected to the other two corridors, which represents the survival of Jews in Germany despite the Holocaust and the Exile. This axis leads to a staircase, which in turn leads to the main building. The entrance to the museum has been intentionally made difficult and long to infuse the visitor with the challenges and challenges that are distinctive in Jewish history. The Garden of Exile is an outside area of the museum, which is accessed through the axis of exile. It is a square surface surrounded by 49 concrete columns of six meters high, so that nothing can be seen from the outside. The number of columns is symbolic, in fact, to remember the year of birth of the state of Israel, 1948, another column, the central one, instead represents Berlin and is filled inside land from Jerusalem. On the top of the columns were planted olive trees. They are the symbol of peace and hope for a return home. The Holocaust Tower is located at the end of the axis of death and is accessed by opening a thick and very heavy door. It is a totally empty, dark, non-aired structure that is illuminated only by the indirect light of the day coming from a narrow slit at the top. 10,000 faces of punched steel are distributed on the floor of the Empty Space of Memory, visitors are invited to walk on the faces and to listen to the crash produced by metal slabs that slammed against each other and against people passing by. The frustration and anguish of all those dead make you want to get out of the room as soon as possible without being able to stop treading the heads of shoah victims.